How does data travel across the internet? How does it know where to go? How does the internet speak to the devices that use it? These are questions that most people rarely think about, but they are critical to understanding how the internet works. In this article, we’ll deconstruct a data packet so you can learn how bits and bytes travel across the internet. We’ll also talk about how devices know what the different types of packets mean and why traffic jams are so common on today’s web.
The anatomy of an HTTP request
HTTP requests are made up of several different components, each of which plays a role in getting the desired information from a server. The first part of an HTTP request is the method, which tells the server what kind of action to take. The most common methods are GET, which requests data from a server, and POST, which sends data to a server.
The anatomy of an HTTP response
When you send a request to a server, it responds with an HTTP response. This response has several components, including a status code, headers, and a body. The status code is either 200 for success or something else for some other kind of error (404, 500). The headers are metadata about the response that typically includes how long it took to respond and what kind of content-type (e.g., text/html) the data in the body is supposed to be formatted as. Finally, there’s a blank line followed by your requested content in HTML format.
The anatomy of an IP packet
An IP packet has a header and a payload. The header contains information about the source and destination of the packet, as well as other control information. The payload is the data that is being carried by the packet. There are many different types of data packets, but all packets contain a header and payload.
The different types of packets include TCP/IP, ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), UDP (User Datagram Protocol), RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).
These protocols are not just used for sending email or browsing websites. They can also be used to chat with friends through Skype or transfer files through FTP.
The anatomy of a UDP datagram
A UDP datagram consists of two parts: a header and a data payload. The header contains information about the source and destination of the datagram, as well as other control information. The data payload is the actual data being transmitted. It starts with an 8-bit field that indicates how many bytes are in the payload. It then has a 4-byte header followed by the bytes themselves.
In this example, the first byte is 192 (ASCII for X) and it’s followed by 115 bytes worth of ASCII text representing ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. When you’re designing an application that transmits binary data over UDP, it’s important to understand these concepts to ensure that your packets will be delivered correctly
The anatomy of TCP segments
Data packets are how information is transmitted across the internet. When you send an email, request a webpage, or stream a video, your computer breaks up your message into tiny pieces called TCP segments. These segments are then transmitted to the recipient, where they’re reassembled into the original message.
The anatomy of Ethernet frames
Ethernet frames are the standard for data transmission on local area networks (LANs). Each frame has a specific format that includes a preamble, destination address, source address, data, and a frame check sequence (FCS). The preamble is used to synchronize transmissions between devices. The destination address indicates which device the frame is going to.
The source address indicates which device sent the frame. Data is any type of information sent across a network such as text or pictures. Lastly, FCS is used to detect errors in transmission caused by noise or interference in the communication channel.